How the Internet of Things (IoT) Works




How the Internet of Things Works. … The Internet of Things (IoT), also sometimes referred to as the Internet of Everything (IoE), consists of all the web-enabled devices that collect, send and act on data they acquire from their surrounding environments using embedded sensors, processors and communication hardware.
The internet of things, or IoT, is a system of interrelated computing devices, mechanical and digital machines, objects, animals or people that provided with unique identifiers (UIDs)and the ability to transfer data over a network without requiring human-to-human or hum.
An IoT ecosystem consists of web-enabled smart devices that use embedded processors, sensors and communication hardware to collect, send and act on data they acquire from their environments. IoT shares the sensor data they collect by connecting to an IoT gateway or other edge devices where data is either sent to the cloud to be analyzed or analyzed locally. Sometimes, these devices communicate with other related devices and act on the information they get from one another. The devices do most of the work without human intervention, although people can interact with the devices — for instance, to set them up, give them instructions or access the data.
The connectivity, networking and communication protocols used with these web-enabled devices largely depend on the specific IoT applications deployed.

Benefits of IoT.
The internet of things offers a number of benefits to organizations, enabling them to:
monitor their overall business processes;
improve the customer experience;
save time and money;
enhance employee productivity;
integrate and adapt business models;
make better business decisions; and
generate more revenue.
IoT encourages companies to rethink the ways they approach their businesses, industries, and markets and gives them the tools to improve their business strategies.
Consumer and enterprise IoT applications
There are numerous real-world applications of the internet of things, ranging from consumer IoT and enterprise IoT to manufacturing and industrial IoT (IIoT). IoT applications span numerous verticals, including automotive, telco, energy and more.
In the consumer segment, for example, smart home, that equipped with smart thermostats, smart appliances, and connected heating, lighting and electronic devices can be controlled remotely via computers, smartphones or other mobile devices.
Wearable devices with sensors and software can collect and analyze user data, sending messages to other technologies about the users with the aim of making users’ lives easier and more comfortable. Wearable devices also used for public safety — for example, improving first responders’ response times during emergencies by providing optimized routes to a location or by tracking construction workers’ or firefighters’ vital signs at life-threatening sites.

Healthcare, IoT offers many benefits, including the ability to monitor patients more closely to use the data that’s generated and analyze it. Hospitals often use IoT systems to complete tasks such as inventory management, for both pharmaceuticals and medical instruments.
Smart buildings can, for instance, reduce energy costs using sensors that detect how many occupants are in a room. The temperature can adjust automatically — for example, turning the air conditioner on if sensors detect a conference room is full or turning the heat down if everyone in the office has gone home.
In agriculture, IoT-based smart farming systems can help monitor, for instance, light, temperature, humidity and soil moisture of crop fields using connected sensors. IoT is also instrumental in automating irrigation systems.
In a smart city, IoT sensors and deployments, such as smart streetlights and smart meters, can help alleviate traffic, conserve energy, monitor and address environmental concerns, and improve sanitation.
IoT security and privacy issues
The internet of things connects billions of devices to the internet and involves the use of billions of data points, all of which need to be secured. Due to its expanded attack surface, IoT Security and IoT Privacy cited as significant concerns.
One of the most notorious recent IoT attacks was Mirai, a botnet that infiltrated domain name server provider Dyn and took down many websites for an extended period in one of the biggest distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks ever seen. Attackers gained access to the network by exploiting poorly secured IoT devices.
Because IoT devices are closely connected, all a hacker has to do is exploit one vulnerability to manipulate all the data, rendering it unusable. And manufacturers that don’t update their devices regularly — or at all — leave them vulnerable to cybercriminals.
Additionally, connected devices often ask users to input their personal information, including names, ages, addresses, phone numbers and even social media accounts — information that’s invaluable to hackers.
However, hackers aren’t the only threat to the internet of things; privacy is another major concern for IoT users. For instance, companies that make and distribute consumer IoT devices could use those devices to obtain and sell users’ personal data.
Beyond leaking personal data, IoT poses a risk to critical infrastructure, including electricity, transportation, and financial services.
IoT is becoming more accessible in all industries, as opposed to being used mainly in manufacturing. Explore this report to learn why this is the case, and to review the results of a survey of 200 manufacturers and contractors with decision-making power over IoT.
How can your network prepare for the increase of IoT devices? Access this infographic to learn six best practices for reducing IoT complexity and improving the reliability and security of your current network infrastructure.
Among the many issues, companies face now is that of connectivity for IoT. Connected devices of all types offer valuable data and priceless business insights, but first the fundamental connection decision — which goes beyond the question of wired or wireless – must be made.
Learn how to make sense of one of the most talked about trends in the tech world so that you can start the path toward tremendous value found in IoT big data. More information please feel free to contact us.

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Source:  MIT, UIO  and  UofOslo